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History Of December 29

• 1996 Guatemalan civil war comes to an end
The 36-year long civil war fought between several leftist groups representing the indigenous people and poor and the government came to an end after Comandante Rolando Morán of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity and president Álvaro Arzú signed a peace treaty under the supervision of the UN. Morán and Arzú received the Nobel Peace Prize for their role in bringing peace to the country.
• 1937 Ireland established
A new constitution, established by a national referendum, changed the name of the Irish Free state to Ireland. The Irish Free State was a part of the British Commonwealth and was established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty singed in 1921.
• 1916 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man published
The first novel of Irish writer, James Joyce, the book follows the life of Stephen Dedalus, who many believe was the author's alter ego. It first came out as a series in the literary magazine, The Egoist and was then published by American publisher B. W. Huebsch. James Joyce is best known for his book Ulysses, which is about a single day in the life of advertising agent, Leopold Bloom. In honor of the book, fans of the author celebrate an unofficial holiday, Bloomsday on June 16.
• 1911 Mongolian Independence
The landlocked North East Asian country declared its independence from the Qing Dynasty, after the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. The country had been under the Qing rule for about 200 years.
• 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre
On this day, the U.S. Army’s 7th Cavalry tried to disarm the members of the Lakota tribe who were camped at the Wounded Knee Creek. During their attempt, a shot was fired and the cavalry massacred over 150 members of the tribe including women and children. Many historians believe that the number of people massacred was much higher. Wounded Knee is near present day Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the state of South Dakota.

Births On This Day

• 1972 Jude Law - English actor, director, producer
• 1953 Stanley Williams - American gang leader, co-founded the Crips
• 1923 Cheikh Anta Diop - Senegalese historian, anthropologist, physicist
• 1809 William Ewart Gladstone - English politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
• 1808 Andrew Johnson - American politician, 17th President of the United States

Deaths On This Day

• 2009 Akmal Shaikh - Pakistani/English businessman, drug trafficker
• 1986 Harold Macmillan - English politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
• 1929 Wilhelm Maybach - German businessman, founded Maybach
• 1916 Grigori Rasputin - Russian monk
• 1170 Thomas Becket - English archbishop